Selected Tertiary coals from the western part of Indonesia (Sumatera, Kalimantan and Java) indicate similarities and differences in type and rank characteristics. These coals reflect their geological setting, particularly for intrusive and stratigraphic aspects. Type and rank of the coals were assessed by petrographic examination. The coals are mainly dominated by vitrinite, common liptinite and rare inertinite and mineral matter. Vitrinite macerals are dominated detrovitrinite and telovitrinite. Resinite, cutinite and suberinite are the dominant liptinite macerals in the coals. Inertinite macerals in the coals consist of semifusinite, sclerotinite and inertodetrinite. The type differences largely reflect climatic influence and differences in peat conditions. In spite of short geological history, the coals exhibit variable vitrinite reflectances. The high vitrinite reflectance of the coals is a result of higher regional coalification levels in the basins associated with greater cover and effects of igneous intrusions.


coal, maceral, type, rank, western Indonesia

Full Text:



Amijaya, H. and Littke, R. (2006) “Properties of thermally metamorphosed coal from Tanjung Enim Area, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia with special reference to the coalification path of macerals,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 66(4), pp. 271–295. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2005.07.008.

Australian Standard (1998) “Coal petrography. Part 2: maceral analysis.” Strathfield, NSW, Australia.

Australian Standard (2000) “Coal petrography. Part 3: methods for microscopical determination of the reflectance of coal macerals.” Strathfield, NSW, Australia.

Belkin, H. E., Tewalt, S. J., Hower, J. C., Stucker, J. D. and O’Keefe, J. M. K. (2009) “Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 77(3–4), pp. 260–268. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2008.08.001.

Darman, H. (2000) An Outline of the Geology of Indonesia. Edited by F. H. Sidi. Jakarta: Indonesian Association of Geologists.

Daulay, B. and Santoso, B. (2008) “Characteristics of selected Sumateran tertiary coals regarding their petrographic analyses,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 11(10), pp. 1–18.

Daulay, B., Santoso, B. and Ningrum, N. S. (2015) “Evaluation of selected high rank coal in Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan relating to its coking properties,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 18(1), pp. 1–10.

Daulay, B., Umar, D. F., Santoso, B. and Suganal (2010) “Strategy to maximize use of coal and associated gaseous fuels in South Sumatera Basin,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 13(3), pp. 119–127.

Friederich, M. C., Moore, T. A. and Flores, R. M. (2016) “A regional review and new insights into SE Asian Cenozoic coal-bearing sediments: Why does Indonesia have such extensive coal deposits?,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 166(1 September 2016), pp. 2–35. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2016.06.013.

Hartono, U. (2012) Magmatism in Kalimantan. Bandung: Centre for Geological Survey.

Katili, J. A. (1980) Geotectonics of Indonesia-a modern view. Jakarta: Directorate General of Mines.

Koesoemadinata, R. P. (1978) “Sedimentary framework of Tertiary coal basins of Indonesia,” in 3rd Regional Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources of SE Asia. Bangkok, pp. 621–639.

Moore, T. A., Bowe, M. and Nas, C. (2014) “High heat flow effects on a coalbed methane reservoir, East Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 131, pp. 7–31. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2014.05.012.

Santoso, B. (2010) “Petrographic properties of Palaeogene southern Banten coal seams with regard to geologic aspects,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 13(2), pp. 47–54.

Santoso, B. (2011) “Organic petrology of selected coal samples of Eocene Kuaro Formation from Pasir area-East Kalimantan,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 14(3), pp. 146–153.

Santoso, B. (2015) Petrologi batubara Sumatera dan Kalimantan: jenis, peringkat dan aplikasi. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Santoso, B. and Daulay, B. (2005a) “Factors affecting Tertiary coal quality (with particular case: Banten Coalfields),” Jurnal Teknologi Mineral dan Batubara, 13(33), pp. 1–9.

Santoso, B. and Daulay, B. (2005b) “Significance of type and rank of selected Kutai coals with respect to their utilisation characteristics,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 8(3), pp. 1–12.

Santoso, B. and Daulay, B. (2005c) “Type and rank of selected Tertiary Kalimantan coals,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 8(2), pp. 1–12.

Santoso, B. and Daulay, B. (2007) “Comparative petrography of Ombilin and Bayah coals related to their origin,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 10(9), pp. 1–12.

Santoso, B. and Daulay, B. (2008) “Importance of organic petrology to type and rank of Miocene Asem-Asem coal, South Kalimantan,” Indonesian Mining Journal, 11(12), pp. 1–10.

Sosrowidjojo, I. B. and Saghafi, A. (2009) “Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 79(4), pp. 145–156. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2009.07.002.

Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.-T., Teichmüller, M., Taylor, G. H., Chandra, D. and Teichmüller, R. (1982) Stach’s textbook of coal petrology, Book.

Susilawati, R., Evans, P. N., Esterle, J. S., Robbins, S. J., Tyson, G. W., Golding, S. D. and Mares, T. E. (2015) “Temporal changes in microbial community composition during culture enrichment experiments with Indonesian coals,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 137, pp. 66–76. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2014.10.015.

Susilawati, R. and Ward, C. R. (2006) “Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 68(3–4), pp. 171–195. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2006.02.003.

Widodo, S., Oschmann, W., Bechtel, A., Sachsenhofer, R. F., Anggayana, K. and Puettmann, W. (2010) “Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 81(3), pp. 151–162. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2009.12.003.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Mining Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.