Conversion of natural zeolites into Na-A zeolite by the two-step method has been achieved. Synthesis process was conducted at hydrothermal condition 90° and 100° C using alkaline silicates as silica source aluminate as alumina source. The silica was derived from zeolitic tuff and the sodium aluminate was obtained from chemical reagent. Dissolution on zeolitic tuff was made in order to obtain supernatant, Na2SiO3.nH2O. Reaction time for the synthesis ranged from 0.5 – 4 h. It is found that SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 1.6, Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio of 4.41, and Na2O/H2O molar ratio of 60.70, and crystallization time of 4 h give maximum crystallinity. XRD and SEM showed that Na-A zeolite synthesis begins after 1 h and reaches its crystallization maximum. Then Na-A is substituted by Na-X and hydroxysodalite (HS) zeolite. The XRD pattern and SEM image show that microtextural are comparable to the reputed zeolite commercial.

Full Text:



Akolekar, D., Chaffee, A. and Howe, R.F. 1997, 'The Transformation of Kaolin to Low Silica X Zeolite', Zeolites, vol 19, no. 3, pp. 359-365.

Alexander, G.B., Heston, W.M., and Iler, R.K. 1954, 'The Solubility of Amorphous Silica in Water', Journal of Physical chemistry, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 453-5.

Antonic T., Cizmek A., and Subotic B. 1994, 'Dissolution of Amorphous Aluminosilicate Zeolite Precursors in Alkaline Solutions : Part 2. Mechanism of The Dissolution', J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. Vol. 90, no. 13, pp. 1973–7.

Antonic T., Cizmek A., Kosanovic, C. and Sub- otic, B. 1993, 'Dissolution of amorphous aluminosilicate zeolite precursors in alkaline solutions: Part 1. Kinetics of the dissolution',

J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. Vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1817–1822.

Armbruster T. 2001, 'Clinoptilolite-heulandite: ap- plications and basic research. In : Galarnau A., Di Renzo, F., Faujula. F. and. Vedrine J. (Editors)', Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 135: Zeolites and Mesoporous Materials at the Dawn of the 21st Century, Elsvier Science B.V, pp. 3-17. ASTM D:5357-98, Standard Test for Determination of Relative Crystallinity of Zeolite Sodium A by X-Ray Diffraction.

Basaldella, E.I., Kikot, A., and Pereira, E. 1990, 'Synthesis of Zeolites from Mechanically Activated Kaolin Clays', Reactivity of Solids, vol. 8, pp. 169-77.

Benning, L.B., Wilkin R.T. and Barnes, H.L. 2000, 'Solubility and Stability of Zeolite in Aueous Solution: II. Calcic clinoptilolite and mordenite', American Mineralogist, vol. 85, pp. 495-508.

Breck, D.W. 1974, Zeolite Molecular Sieves: Structure, Chemistry and Use. John Wiley & Son, New York.

Burriesci, N., Crisafulli, M., Giordano, N. and Anto- nucci P.L. 1986, 'Iron-free Zeolites from Lipari Pumie', Zeolites, vol.6, no.2, pp. 119-124.

Cizmek, A., Komunjer, L. and Subotic, B. 1996, 'Kinetics of zeolite dissolution: Part 3. Disso- lution of synthetic mordenite in Hot Sodium Hydroxyde Solutions', Zeolites, vol. 12, pp. 190-6.

de-Lucas, -Antonio, Uguina,- Angeles, M., Covian,-Ignacio 1992, 'Synthesis of 13X Zeolite from Calcined Kaolins and Sodium Silicate for Use in Detergents', Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 31,Sept, pp. 2134-40.

Dmitrevskii, G.E., Martynova, L.G., Antoshenko, E.I. and Lukomskaya, Z.T. 1971, 'Solubility of Silica in solutions of Caustic Alkalies and of Sodium And Potassium Carbonate', Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2451-5.

Drag, E.B, Miecznikowski, F., Abo-Lemon and Rutkowshi M. 1985, 'Synthesis of A, X and Y Zeolites from Clay Minerals. B.S. Drazj, Hocevarand and Pejovnovik (Editors)', Zeo- lites, Science Publisher B.V, Amsterdam, pp. 147-154.

Fang, L.C., Cheng, H.H. 1995, 'Resource Recov- ery of Waste Fly Ash: Synthesis of Zeolite- like Materials', Environmental Science and Technology, 29.

Ghobarkar, H., Schaf, O. and Guth, U. 1999, 'Zeolites-from kitchen to space', Prog. Solid St. Chem., vol 27, pp.29-73.

Imbert, F.E., Moreno, C. and Montero 1994, 'Ven- ezuelan Natural Aluminosilicate as a Feed- stock in the Synthesis of Zeolite A.', Zeolites, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 374-8.

Kang S.J. and Egashira K. 1997, 'Modifi cation of different grades of Korean natural zeolites for increasing cation exchange capacity', Applied Clay Science vol. 12, pp.131 – 144. Lechert, H. and Kacirek, H. 1993, 'The Kinetics of Nucleation of X Zeolites', Zeolites, vol. 13, March, pp 192-8.

Leonard J.L. 1981, 'Preparation of Zeolite A by Hydrothermal Treatment of Clinoptilolite', US Patent No. 4,247,524,27 January.

Roozeboom, F., Robson, H. E. and Chan, S.S. 1987, Study on the Mechanism of Zeolites A, X and Y. pp.127-147 .

Shi, H.N. 1983, 'Two Step Process for the Prepa- ration of Zeolite A by Hydrothermal Treatment of Clinoptilolite', US Patent No. 4,401,634, 30 August.

Subotic, B., Skrtic, D. and Smit I. 1980, 'Transfor- mation of Zeolite A into Hydroxysodalite', Jour- nal of Crystal Growth, vol. 50 pp. 498-508.

Yoshida, A. and Inoue, K. 1988, 'Whiteness in Zeolite A Prepared from Shirazu Volcanic Glass', Zeolites, vol. 8, no. 3, 94-100.

Yoshida, A. and Inoueo, K. 1986, 'Formation of Faujasite-type Zeolite from Ground Shirazu Volcanic Glass', Zeolites, vol. 6 no. 8, pp.467-73.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Mining Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.